Horned Gophers, Epigaulus
Horned Gophers lived in the
prairie areas of Nebraska
and have been extinct since the Pliocene. They
had two horns which were made of compressed hair and nail
like substances. Horned gophers are
the smallest known mammals to ever have horns and the only known horned rodents.
Arsinoitherium are related to elephant species. These
extinct mammals were rhinoceros-like herbivores that lived during the late
Eocene and the early Oligocene of northern Africa from 36 to 30 million
years ago in areas of tropical rainforests and mangrove swamps. They stood 5
feet tall at the shoulders, were 10 feet long and weighed more than 2 1/2
tons. Their enormous horns were solid bone.
Elothers and Moropus
Hyaenodon (left) were a genus of carnivorous mammals
that lived from 42 to 16 million years ago. They varied in size and form.
Some species were amongst the largest terrestrial carnivorous mammals of the
time. One species, Hyaenodon gigas, grew to more than 10 feet long
and weighed more than 1,000 lbs.
Moropus (right) lived in North America during the Miocene
from about 23 to 14 million years ago. Moropus were herbivores with long
front legs and horse-like snouts. They are related to horses, rhinos, and
tapirs, although they differed in that they had three-clawed front feet
rather than hooves, which they may have used for foraging or defending
Long Necked Camel, Aepycamelus
Aepycamelus were camelids that lived in the prairies where the great
plains of North America are now during the Miocene
between 20 and 5 million years ago. They had
leathery skin pads on their legs
that functioned as cushions when the animals knelt to rest like those of modern camels.
Titanotheres and Tortoises
Titanotheres, or Brontotheres were hoofed mammals that lived
between 56 and 34 million years ago during which some species evolved to
have huge bulky body sizes up to 8 feet in height with with strong,
pillar-like limbs, massive skulls, and bizarre hornlike skull appendages.
Their remains are numerous providing clear records of varying forms.
Dinoceras mirabile, now known as Dinoceras
anceps were mammals that lived during the early Eocene 52 million years
ago in the areas of Utah and Wyoming. They were herbivores that grew to 7
1/2 ft tall, 13 ft long, and weighed 2 1/4 tons. An exceptionally thick
skull left a small cranial cavity for brains.
The woolly rhinoceros lived throughout northern Europe and
Asia during the Pleistocene epoch until it became extinct relatively
recently following the last glacial period. They grew up to 6 1/2 feet tall,
12 feet long, and weighed up to 7,000 lb and were adapted well to the harsh
temperatures during the glacial periods. Images of woolly rhinoceroses adorn
a number of prehistoric cave dwelling walls.
Cave Painting of the
Found in the cavern Font de Gaume Dordogne Mosas