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Extinct Animals  12
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Horned Gophers, Extinct, R. Bruce Horsfall

Horned Gophers, Epigaulus hatcheri

Horned Gophers lived in the prairie areas of Nebraska and have been extinct since the Pliocene. They had two horns which were made of compressed hair and nail like substances. Horned gophers are the smallest known mammals to ever have horns and the only known horned rodents.






Arsinoitherium are related to elephant species. These extinct mammals were rhinoceros-like herbivores that lived during the late Eocene and the early Oligocene of northern Africa from 36 to 30 million years ago in areas of tropical rainforests and mangrove swamps. They stood 5 feet tall at the shoulders, were 10 feet long and weighed more than 2 1/2 tons. Their enormous horns were solid bone.






Elothers and Moropus


Hyaenodon (left) were a genus of carnivorous mammals that lived from 42 to 16 million years ago. They varied in size and form. Some species were amongst the largest terrestrial carnivorous mammals of the time. One species, Hyaenodon gigas, grew to more than 10 feet long and weighed more than 1,000 lbs.

Moropus (right) lived in North America during the Miocene from about 23 to 14 million years ago. Moropus were herbivores with long front legs and horse-like snouts. They are related to horses, rhinos, and tapirs, although they differed in that they had three-clawed front feet rather than hooves, which they may have used for foraging or defending themselves.




Giraffe Necked Camel

Long Necked Camel, Aepycamelus

Aepycamelus were camelids that lived in the prairies where the great plains of North America are now during the Miocene between 20 and 5 million years ago. They had leathery skin pads on their legs that functioned as cushions when the animals knelt to rest like those of modern camels.





Titanotheres and Tortoises

Titanotheres and Tortoises

Titanotheres, or Brontotheres were hoofed mammals that lived between 56 and 34 million years ago during which some species evolved to have huge bulky body sizes up to 8 feet in height with with strong, pillar-like limbs, massive skulls, and bizarre hornlike skull appendages. Their remains are numerous providing clear records of varying forms.





Dinoceras mirabile

Dinoceras mirabile

Dinoceras mirabile, now known as  Dinoceras anceps were mammals that lived during the early Eocene 52 million years ago in the areas of Utah and Wyoming. They were herbivores that grew to 7 1/2 ft tall, 13 ft long, and weighed 2 1/4 tons. An exceptionally thick skull left a small cranial cavity for brains.





Woolly Rhinoceros

The woolly rhinoceros lived throughout northern Europe and Asia during the Pleistocene epoch until it became extinct relatively recently following the last glacial period. They grew up to 6 1/2 feet tall, 12 feet long, and weighed up to 7,000 lb and were adapted well to the harsh temperatures during the glacial periods. Images of woolly rhinoceroses adorn a number of prehistoric cave dwelling walls.






Cave Painting of the Wooly Rhinoceros
Found in the cavern Font de Gaume Dordogne Mosas


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