Uintatherium anceps, "Beast of the Uinta Mountains" was a
mammal that lived during the Eocene epoch beginning around 52 million years
ago. Uintatherium fossils were discovered near the Uinta Mountains in
Wyoming and in Utah.
Uintatherium was a herbivore that could grow to 13 feet
long, almost 6 feet tall and weigh more than 4,000 lbs. It had robust pillar
like legs similar to a rhinoceros. Its most unusual feature was the
protruding knobs on its snout and brow. It had a thick, oddly shaped skull,
with downward pointing canines somewhat similar to saber-toothed tigers, but
was not carnivorous and the canines must have been for defense.
These extinct mammals with spectacular horns were herbivores
that lived in areas of tropical rainforests and mangrove swamps of northern
Africa during the late Eocene and the early Oligocene from 36 to 30 million
years ago. They stood 6 feet tall at the shoulders, were 10 feet long and
weighed more than 2 1/2 tons.
Arsinoitherium were related to elephants and they had thick,
hairless skin resembling elephant hide. Their enormous horns were solid bone
as well as a second pair of small knob like horns on top of the head.
Arsinoitherium size and form was best suited for wading and swimming. They
likely lived in small groups and would have been in the water most of the
time, similarly to hippos. They ate fruit and leaves, probably continually.
Toxodon is a mammal that lived in South America during the
late Pliocene and Pleistocene from about 2.6 million to 16,500 years ago.
Toxodon had a large muscular body similar to a rhinoceros, was almost 5 feet
high at the shoulders, 9 feet long, and weighed up to 1500 kg.
Charled Darwin studied a toxodon fossil discovered near the
Sarandis, a small stream entering the Rio Negro, which is a tributary of the
Amazon. The have also been discovered near present day Monte Hermoso,
Horned Toxodon, Trigodon gaudryi
Trigodon gaudryi, of the family
is another large mammal which which lived in South America during the
Miocene from about 11 to 7 million years ago. Although not related, it
resembled a rhinoceros. It had a horn, a robust body supported by pillar
Glyptodon was a huge armored mammal that
lived in South and North America during the Pleistocene (1.8 million to
11,000 years ago). Some were as long as 16 feet and would have weighed about
as much as a small car. They were related to modern day armadillos.
Glyptodon is believed to have been an herbivore, grazing on grasses and
Toxodons, named for the curvature of their
teeth, were a numerous species of mammal that lived in South America during
the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs from about 2.6 million to 16,000 years
ago. Toxodons became extinct around the end of the Pleistocene. Some Toxodon
fossils have been found with arrow heads indicating that they were hunted by
humans who likely caused or contributed to their extinction.
Baluchitherium was an early hornless
rhinoceros which lived in Asia and fed on tree leaves during the late
Oligocene (24 to 38 million years ago ) and early Miocene (5 to 24 million
years ago). It was the largest known land mammal to have lived, estimated to
be 18 feet tall at the shoulder, 33 feet long and weighing more than 20
Giant Kangaroos, Procoptodon goliah, as large
as 500 lbs once lived in Australia during the Pleistocene epoch as recently
as 20,000 to 40,000 years ago before going extinct, possibly due to human
Giant Australian Marsupial
The Giant Australian Marsupial, Diprotodon, looked like
and sometimes referred to as a giant Wombat and lived from 1,600,000 to 40,000 years ago
during the Pleistocene. It was the largest marsupial that
ever lived, the size of a hippopotamus, 9 feet long and 6 feet high at the
shoulders. It probably ate
tree leaves, shrubs and grasses.
Giant Ground Sloth
The Giant Ground Sloth, Megatherium
americanum, was 18 feet long, as big as an elephant, and lived in South
America during the Pleistocene until just a few thousand years ago.
Other species from the size of a cat to that of the the giant ground sloth
lived from the Arctic to Antarctica. They were hunted by humans
and some believe humans may even have farmed them.